Dedicated to the Study and Treatment of Personality Disorders

The Center for Transference-Focused Psychotherapy

Eve Caligor, MD

Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

Adjunct Professor of Psychiatry, Weill Medical College of Cornell University

Director of the Psychotherapy Division, and Training and Supervising Analyst, Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research

Research Activities

Eve Caligor, MD's, primary clinical and research interests are the evaluation and treatment of problems in self and interpersonal functioning, which may range from mild to more severe. These problems are expressed in difficulties with self-esteem or with one's sense of self, or with problems in one's important relationships, often in conjunction with feelings of anxiety or depression. With her colleagues at the Weill Cornell Medical College, Dr. Caligor developed an approach to psychotherapy for mild difficulties in personality functioning (Caligor et al 2007), where overt functioning may be good or even excellent but internal difficulties may cause distress or failure to live up to one's full potential. Most recently with her Cornell colleagues she has developed Transference-Focused Psychotherapy – Extended (TFP-E) (Caligor et al 2018).  TFP-E is a general model of psychodynamic therapy designed to enhance one's sense of self and ability to establish and enjoy satisfying relationships with others. Based on psychodynamic principles and techniques and making use of evidence-based principles of psychotherapy, TFP-E enhances healthy personality functioning while addressing symptoms of anxiety and depression associated with problems in adaptation.

In her research, Dr. Caligor has developed her interest in psychodynamic assessment of personality functioning as co-author of the Structure Interview for Personality Pathology (STIPO) (Stern et al 2010), a semi-structured interview evaluating personality health and impairment within the framework of object relations theory. This instrument is used widely in clinical and research settings to evaluate personality functioning. Research to develop and validate the STIPO were funded by the American Psychoanalytic Association and the International Psychoanalytic Association.

Dr. Caligor has a longstanding interest in identifying what are the most effective psychotherapeutic approaches for different kinds of psychological problems, and she frequently consults with colleagues on these issues. She has published studies characterizing patients referred for psychoanalytic treatment (Caligor et al, 2003 and 2009), a first step in the process of developing empirically based indications for psychoanalysis. She has also worked with a consortium of psychotherapy researchers and clinical trials experts to develop and pilot a randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy, supportive expressive therapy, and psychoanalytic treatment for patients with problems in interpersonal functioning. This project was funded by the American Psychoanalytic Association and the Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research, and the findings of the pilot study have been published in the Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association (Caligor et al, 2012).

As a longtime educator and former Psychiatry residency training director at NYU, Dr. Caligor is intrigued by the possibility of applying her clinical and research expertise to residency education and psychotherapy training.  She has developed novel approaches to psychodynamic psychotherapy training during residency, focusing on manualized, evidence-based treatments. She is the recipient of multiple teaching awards including the Irma Bland Award from the American Psychiatric Association and teacher of the year awards from residents and psychoanalytic candidates at Columbia and NYU. She currently lectures, teaches and supervises widely, both nationally and internationally.


Caligor E, Stern B.  Editorial introduction to the Special Issue: Recent advances in transference-focused Psychotherapy: Extending and refining the treatment model. Psychodynamic Psychiatry, 2021, 49 (2), 173-177.

Clarkin JF, Caligor E, Sowislo, J. TFP Extended: Development and recent advances. Psychodynamic Psychiatry 2021, 49 (2), 188-214.

Clarkin, J.F., Caligor, E., Sowislo, J. An object relations perspective on the alternative model for personality disorders (DSM-5). Psychopathology, 2020, vol. 53, 141-148.

Caligor  E, Stern BL: Diagnosis, classification and assessment of narcissistic personality disorder within the framework of object relations theory.  Journal of Personality Disorders, 2020, vol. 34, 104-121.

Cherry S, Rosenberg M, Caligor E: Teaching Psychotherapy to Psychoanalytic Candidates.  Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 2018, vol. 66 (6), 1051-1064.

Stern BL, Caligor E, Horz-Sagstetter S, Clarkin JF: An object-relations based model for the assessment of borderline psychopathology. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 2018, vol. 41 (4), 596-611.

Lenzenweger MF, Clarkin JF, Caligor E, Cain NM, Kernberg OF: Malignant narcissism in Relation to clinical Change in borderline personality disorder: an exploratory study.  Psychopathology, 2018: DOI: 10.1159/000492228.

Kampe L, Zimmermann J, Bender DS, Caligor E, Borowski AL, Ehrenthal JC, Benecke C.  Hörz-Sagstetter S. Comparison of the structured DSM-5 clinical interview for the level of personality functioning scale with the Structured Interview of Personality Organization. Journal of Personality Assessment, 2018, 100 (6), 642-649.

Clarkin JF, Caligor E: Measurement of personality disorder domains of dysfunction in clinical practice. PTT – Personlichkeittsstorungen: Theorie and Therapie, 2018, vol. 4:259-268.

Hoerz-Sagstetter S, Caligor E, Preti E, Stern BL, De Panfilis Chiara, Clarkin JF: Clinician-guided assessment of personality using the Structural Interview and the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO). Journal of Personality Assessment, 2018, pp. 1-17.

Hersh R, Caligor E, Yeomans FE: Fundamentals of Transference-Focused Psychotherapy: Applications in Psychiatric and General Medical Settings. New York, Springer, 2017.

Caligor E, Petrini MJ. Narcissistic personality disorder: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, course, assessment, and diagnosis. In: UpToDate, Post TW (Ed), UpToDate, Waltham, MA. (Accessed on November 21, 2016)

Caligor E, Petrini MJ. Treatment of narcissistic personality disorder. In: UpToDate, Post TW (Ed), UpToDate, Waltham, MA. (Accessed December 9, 2016)

Caligor E, Levy K, Yeomans FE: Narcissistic personality disorder: Diagnostic and clinical challenges. American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 172, 5, 415-422, 2015.

Caligor E, Roose SP, Hilsenroth MJ, Rutherford B: Developing a protocol for an outcome study of psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, vol. 35 (sup.1), 150-168, 2015.

Levy KN, Ehrenthal JC, Yeomans FE, Caligor E: The efficacy of psychotherapy: Focus on psychodynamic psychotherapy as an example. Psychodynamic Psychotherapy, vol. 42, 3, 2014, pp. 377-422.

Deringer E, Caligor E: Supervision and responses of psychiatry residents to adverse patient events. Academic Psychiatry, 2014, pp. 1-7.

Caligor E, Yeomans F, Levin Z: Personality Disorders. In Cutler JK (editor), Psychiatry, DSMV Edition, Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 257- 290.

Caligor E, Levin Z, Deringer E: Preparing Program Directors to Address Unprofessional Behavior. In Kalet A, Chou C (editors), Remediation in Medical Education. New York, Springer, 2014, pp 285-296.

Caligor E: Narcissism in the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual. In Ogrodniczuk, J: Treating Pathological Narcissism. Washington DC, APA Book, 2013, pp. 63-79.

Yeomans FE, Levy K, Caligor E: Transference-focused psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, vol. 50, 3, 2013, pp.449- 453.

Zerbo E, Cohen S, Bielska W, Caligor E: Transference-focused psychotherapy in the general psychiatry residency: A useful and applicable model for residents in acute clinical settings. Psychodynamic Psychotherapy, 2013, pp. 164-181.

Caligor E, Hilsenroth MJ, Devlin M, Rutherford BR, Terry M, Roose SP: Will patients accept randomization to psychoanalysis?  A feasibility study.  Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, vol. 60, 2, 2012, pp. 337-360.

Horz S, Clarkin J, Stern B, Caligor E: The Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO): An Instrument to Assess Severity and Change of Personality Pathology.  In Levy R, Ablon S (editors), Handbook of Evidence-Based Psychodynamic Psychotherapy, 3rd Edition.  New York, Humana Press, pp 2012, 571-92.

Stern BL, Caligor E, Clarkin JF, Critchfield KL, MacCornack V, Lenzenweger MF, Kernberg OF:  The Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO):  Preliminary Psychometrics in a Clinical Sample.  Journal of Psychological Assessment, 91, Vol. 1, 2010, pp 35-44.


*Caligor E, Kernberg OK, Clarkin JF, Yeomans FE: Psychodynamic Therapy for Personality Pathology: Treating Self and Interpersonal Functioning.  Washington, D.C., American Psychiatric Press, 2018.


McCommon, B., Sowislo J., Caligor E. (in press).  Higher Level Personality Disorders.  In S. K. Huprich (Ed.) Personality Disorders and Pathology: Integrating Clinical Assessment and Practice in the DSM-5 and ICD-11 Era. APA Books.

Caligor, E., Clarkin, J.F., Sowislo, J. Levels of personality organization: Theoretical background, clinical assessment, and treatment planning. In R.E. Feinstein (Ed.), Personality Disorders: Multi-Theoretical Viewpoints. Oxford University Press, 2021, pp. 33-57.

Clarkin, J.F., & Caligor, E. (in press). Transference-focused psychotherapy for levels of personality pathology severity. In H Crisp & G. Gabbard, (Eds.), Gabbard’s Textbook of Psychotherapeutic Techniques. 2nd Edition. Washington, D.C., American Psychiatric Press.

Caligor E, Clarkin JF, Kernberg OK, Yeomans FE: Psychodynamic psychotherapy. In Roberts LR (editor), American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, Seventh Edition. Washington, D.C., American Psychiatric Press, 2019, pp. 925-954.

Caligor E, Clarkin J, Yeomans F: Transference-Focused psychotherapy for borderline and narcissistic personality disorders. In Orgrodniczuk JS, Kealy D (editor), Contemporary Psychodynamic Psychotherapy. Cambridge, MA, Academic Press, 2019, pp. 151-161.

Stern BS, Clarkin JF, Caligor E: Diagnosis and Assessment. In Yeomans FE, Levy K (editors), Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Special Issue on Borderline Personality Disorder, 2019, pp. 595-611.


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